Send to

Choose Destination
Psychiatry Res. 2018 Mar;261:61-67. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.015. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

A novel approach of substitution therapy with inhalation of essential oil for the reduction of inhalant craving: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.


Inhalants, which are neurotoxic central nervous system (CNS) suppressants, are frequently abused by young adults. Unlike other CNS depressants, including alcohol and opiates, no treatment is currently approved for inhalant dependence. In this report, a novel approach of substitution treatment for inhalant addiction was explored in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled crossover design to examine the effects of inhalation of essential oil and perfume on the reduction of cue-induced craving for inhalant in thirty-four Thai males with inhalant dependence. The craving response was measured by the modified version of Penn Alcohol Craving Score for Inhalants (PACS-inhalants). The participants (mean age ± SE = 27.9 ± 1.4) in this trial had used inhalant for 5.8 ± 1.1 years. Cravings could be induced in all participants by visual cues as assessed by ^50% increases in inhalant craving levels. Generalized estimating equations showed a significant suppressant effect of essential oil, but not perfume, on the craving response as compared with baseline cue-induced craving. Moreover, essential oil, but not perfume, had significant effects on physiological responses including decreasing pulse rate. It is concluded that inhaling essential oil as a substitution treatment for inhalant may be used as part of treatment programs for reducing inhalant craving.


Craving; Essential oil; Inhalant; Treatment

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center