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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Jan 24;10(3):2546-2555. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b16045. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Cationic Zn-Porphyrin Polymer Coated onto CNTs as a Cooperative Catalyst for the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates.

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State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, iChEM, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China.
International College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100049, China.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100049, China.


The development of solid catalysts containing multiple active sites that work cooperatively is very attractive for biomimetic catalysis. Herein, we report the synthesis of bifunctional catalysts by supporting cationic porphyrin-based polymers on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using the direct reaction of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrin zinc(II), di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methane, and 1,4-bis(bromomethyl)benzene in the presence of CNTs. The bifunctional catalysts could efficiently catalyze the cycloaddition reaction of epoxides and CO2 under solvent-free conditions with porphyrin zinc(II) as the Lewis acid site and a bromine anion as a nucleophilic agent working in a cooperative way. Furthermore, a relative amount of porphyrin zinc(II) and quaternary ammonium bromide could be facilely adjusted for facilitating cooperative behavior. The bifunctional catalyst with a TOF up to 2602 h-1 is much more active than the corresponding homogeneous counterpart and is one of the most active heterogeneous catalysts ever reported under cocatalyst-free conditions. The high activity is mainly attributed to the enhanced cooperation effect of the bifunctional catalyst. With a wide substrate scope, the bifunctional catalyst could be stably recycled. This work demonstrates a new approach for the generation of a cooperative activation effect for solid catalysts.


CO2 cycloaddition reaction; bifunctional catalyst; cationic porphyrin polymer; cooperative activation; π−π interaction


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