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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jan 16;115(3):E506-E515. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1717806115. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Viral discovery and diversity in trypanosomatid protozoa with a focus on relatives of the human parasite Leishmania.

Author information

1
Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 710 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110.
3
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia.
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biosciences, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Vilnius 10257, Lithuania.
5
Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.
6
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic.
7
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
8
Coleção de Protozoários, Laboratório de Estudos Integrados em Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
9
Veterinary Research Institute, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
10
Central European Institute of Technology - Masaryk University, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
11
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894.
12
Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Faculty of Fundamental Sciences, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius 10223, Lithuania.
13
University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
14
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110; stephen.beverley@wustl.edu vyacheslav.yurchenko@osu.cz.
15
Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 710 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic; stephen.beverley@wustl.edu vyacheslav.yurchenko@osu.cz.
16
Institute of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 710 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Abstract

Knowledge of viral diversity is expanding greatly, but many lineages remain underexplored. We surveyed RNA viruses in 52 cultured monoxenous relatives of the human parasite Leishmania (Crithidia and Leptomonas), as well as plant-infecting PhytomonasLeptomonas pyrrhocoris was a hotbed for viral discovery, carrying a virus (Leptomonas pyrrhocoris ostravirus 1) with a highly divergent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase missed by conventional BLAST searches, an emergent clade of tombus-like viruses, and an example of viral endogenization. A deep-branching clade of trypanosomatid narnaviruses was found, notable as Leptomonas seymouri bearing Narna-like virus 1 (LepseyNLV1) have been reported in cultures recovered from patients with visceral leishmaniasis. A deep-branching trypanosomatid viral lineage showing strong affinities to bunyaviruses was termed "Leishbunyavirus" (LBV) and judged sufficiently distinct to warrant assignment within a proposed family termed "Leishbunyaviridae" Numerous relatives of trypanosomatid viruses were found in insect metatranscriptomic surveys, which likely arise from trypanosomatid microbiota. Despite extensive sampling we found no relatives of the totivirus Leishmaniavirus (LRV1/2), implying that it was acquired at about the same time the Leishmania became able to parasitize vertebrates. As viruses were found in over a quarter of isolates tested, many more are likely to be found in the >600 unsurveyed trypanosomatid species. Viral loss was occasionally observed in culture, providing potentially isogenic virus-free lines enabling studies probing the biological role of trypanosomatid viruses. These data shed important insights on the emergence of viruses within an important trypanosomatid clade relevant to human disease.

KEYWORDS:

Bunyavirales; Trypanosomatidae; coevolution; coinfection; persistent virus infection

PMID:
29284754
PMCID:
PMC5776999
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1717806115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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