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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 Aug;32(4):1581-1586. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2017.11.028. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Effects of Dexmedetomidine-Isoflurane versus Isoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Injury After Cardiac Valve Replacement Surgery.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Anhui Province, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Anhui Province, China. Electronic address:



To compare dexmedetomidine combined with isoflurane versus isoflurane anesthesia on brain injury after cardiac surgery.


A prospective, randomized, single-blind study.


University hospital.


Adult patients undergoing elective valve replacement surgery.


Ninety-seven patients scheduled for valve replacement surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine and isoflurane (Dex-Iso, n = 50) and isoflurane alone (Iso, n = 47). Dexemedetomidine was infused at 0.6 μg/kg as a bolus, followed with 0.2 μg/kg/h until the end of surgery.


Jugular blood samples were drawn for analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels on time points of: T1 (before induction); T2 (5 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB] onset); T3 (after CPB off); T4 (the first day after operation); T5 (the second day after operation). Plasma lactate levels in arterial and jugular venous blood also were quantified. The difference between arterial and jugular bulb venous blood lactate levels (AVDL) was calculated. An antisaccadic eye movement (ASEM) test was carried out on the day before the operation and the seventh day postoperatively. In both groups, serum MMP-9 and GFAP concentrations increased after CPB, with the peak values occurring after CPB. At time point T5, MMP-9 and GFAP levels were close to those at T1. MMP-9 concentrations in the Dex-Iso group were lower than the Iso group at T3 and T4. GFAP concentrations in the Dex-Iso group were lower at T3 but were higher than the Iso group at T2. No significant differences were found in AVDL between the 2 groups perioperatively except at T2. The ASEM scores decreased significantly postoperatively. There was no significant difference in the ASEM scores between the 2 treatment groups before and after the operation.


The use of dexmedetomidine decreased the biochemical markers of brain injury but did not improve the neuropsychological test result after cardiac surgery.


brain injury; cardiac surgery; dexmedetomidine; isoflurane

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