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Biomaterials. 2018 Mar;158:10-22. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.12.013. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Amino-Si-rhodamines: A new class of two-photon fluorescent dyes with intrinsic targeting ability for lysosomes.

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School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China.
Scientific Instrument Center, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China.
State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Materials, Beijing, 100041, China.
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China. Electronic address:


Noninvasive and specific visualization of lysosomes by fluorescence technology is critical for studying lysosomal trafficking in health and disease and for evaluating new cancer therapeutics that target tumor cell lysosomes. To date, there are two basic types of lysosomal probes whose lysosomal localization correlates with lysosomal acidity and endocytosis pathway, respectively. However, the former may suffer from pH-sensitive lysosomal localization and alkalization-induced lysosomal enzyme inactivation, and the latter need long incubation time to penetrate cell membrane due to the energy-dependency of endocytosis process. In this work, a new class of two-photon fluorescent dyes, termed amino-Si-rhodamines (ASiRs), were developed, which possess the intrinsic lysosome-targeted ability that is independent of lysosomal acidity and endocytosis pathway. As a result, ASiRs show not only the stable lysosomal localization against lysosomal pH changes and negligible interference to lysosomal function, but also excellent cell-membrane-permeability due to the energy-independent passive diffusion pathway. These merits, coupled with their excellent two-photon photophysical properties, long-term retention ability in lysosomes, and negligible cytotoxicity, make ASiRs very suitable for real-time and long-term tracking of lysosomes in living cells or tissues without interference to normal cellular processes. Moreover, the easy functionalization via amino linker further allows the construction of various fluorescent probes for biological targets of interest based on ASiR skeleton, as indicated by the cancer-targeted fluorescent probe ASiR6 as well as a fluorescent peroxynitrite probe ASiR-P.


Amino-Si-rhodamines; Fluorescent probe; Lysosome-targetable; Peroxynitrite; Two-photon

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