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Front Immunol. 2017 Dec 6;8:1651. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01651. eCollection 2017.

Disseminated Tuberculosis and Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis in a Patient with a Gain-of-Function Mutation in Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 1.

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Unidad de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México City, México.
Laboratorio de Fisiología Pulmonar, Hospital Infantil de México, México City, México.
Departamento de Investigación en Microbiología, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México City, México.
Departamento de Patología, Hospital Infantil de México, México City, México.
Departamento de Infectología, Hospital Infantil de México, México City, México.
St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, United States.
Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France.
Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.


In humans, recessive loss-of-function mutations in STAT1 are associated with mycobacterial and viral infections, whereas gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 are associated with a type of primary immunodeficiency related mainly, but not exclusively, to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We studied and established a molecular diagnosis in a pediatric patient with mycobacterial infections, associated with CMC. The patient, daughter of a non-consanguineous mestizo Mexican family, had axillary adenitis secondary to BCG vaccination and was cured with resection of the abscess at 1-year old. At the age of 4 years, she had a supraclavicular abscess with acid-fast-staining bacilli identified in the soft tissue and bone, with clinical signs of disseminated infection and a positive Gene-X-pert test, which responded to anti-mycobacterial drugs. Laboratory tests of the IL-12/interferon gamma (IFN-γ) circuit showed a higher production of IL-12p70 in the whole blood from the patient compared to healthy controls, when stimulated with BCG and BCG + IFN-γ. The whole blood of the patient produced 35% less IFN-γ compared to controls assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, but IL-17 producing T cells from patient were almost absent in PBMC stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was hyperphosphorylated at tyrosine 701 in response to IFN-γ and -α, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blotting in fresh blood mononuclear cells and in Epstein-Barr virus lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCLs); phosphorylation of STAT1 in EBV-LCLs from the patient was resistant to inhibition by staurosporine but sensitive to ruxolitinib, a Jak phosphorylation inhibitor. Genomic DNA sequencing showed a de novo mutation in STAT1 in cells from the patient, absent in her parents and brother; a known T385M missense mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor was identified, and it is a GOF mutation. Therefore, GOF mutations in STAT1 can induce susceptibility not only to fungal but also to mycobacterial infections by mechanisms to be determined.


IL-17; gain-of-function mutation; immunodeficiency; interferon gamma; mycobacterial infection; signal transduction and activator of transcription 1; tuberculosis

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