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J Chem Theory Comput. 2018 Feb 13;14(2):948-958. doi: 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00948. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Comparison of Additive and Polarizable Models with Explicit Treatment of Long-Range Lennard-Jones Interactions Using Alkane Simulations.

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Biophysics Program, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.
Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland , 20 Penn Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, United States.
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.


Long-range Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions have a significant impact on the structural and thermodynamic properties of nonpolar systems. While several methods have been introduced for the treatment of long-range LJ interactions in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, increased accuracy and extended applicability is required for anisotropic systems such as lipid bilayers. The recently refined Lennard-Jones particle-mesh Ewald (LJ-PME) method extends the particle-mesh Ewald (PME) method to long-range LJ interactions and is suitable for use with anisotropic systems. Implementation of LJ-PME with the CHARMM36 (C36) additive and CHARMM Drude polarizable force fields improves agreement with experiment for density, isothermal compressibility, surface tension, viscosity, translational diffusion, and 13C T1 relaxation times of pure alkanes. Trends in the temperature dependence of the density and isothermal compressibility of hexadecane are also improved. While the C36 additive force field with LJ-PME remains a useful model for liquid alkanes, the Drude polarizable force field with LJ-PME is more accurate for nearly all quantities considered. LJ-PME is also preferable to the isotropic long-range correction for hexadecane because the molecular order extends to nearly 20 Å, well beyond the usual 10-12 Å cutoffs used in most simulations.

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