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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;103(3):1095-1101. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02269.

Decreasing Use of Radioactive Iodine for Low-Risk Thyroid Cancer in California, 1999 to 2015.

Author information

1
Section of Endocrine Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of California Los Angeles Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California.
3
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.
4
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

Context:

Routine radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation for low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is not supported by current practice guidelines.

Objective:

To assess recent stage-specific trends in use of RAI ablation.

Design, Setting, and Patients:

Retrospective study of patients with DTC (1999 to 2015) identified from the California Cancer Registry. Statistical analysis included standardized differences, P values, and multivariable analyses using RAI as the predictor variable.

Main Outcome Measures:

Trends and drivers of RAI ablation for low-risk DTC.

Results:

Of 46,906 patients with DTC who underwent near-total or total thyroidectomy [mean age 48.2 ± 15.5 (standard deviation) years, 77% female), 25,457 (54%) received RAI. The proportion of patients with regional/distant disease who received RAI remained stable at 68%. Use of RAI for patients with localized disease (no extrathyroidal extension, lymph node, or distant metastases) decreased from 55% (1999) to 30% (2015), with the most substantial change occurring in tumors <1 cm (39% to 11%). The rate also decreased for localized tumors between 1 and 2 cm (62% to 34%) and 2 and 4 cm (67% to 49%) and remained stable at 59% for tumors >4 cm. In multivariable analyses, patients with localized disease were less likely to receive RAI if they were >65 years old [odds ratio (OR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 to 0.83], had tumors <1 cm (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.35), or were treated in an academic hospital (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.75).

Conclusions:

The rate of RAI ablation decreased over time, mainly attributable to decreased use for localized DTCs <2 cm. Many patients with low-risk DTC still receive RAI unnecessarily.

PMID:
29267880
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2017-02269
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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