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Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2018 Sep;38(6):868-882. doi: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1416578. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

A comprehensive review on two-stage integrative schemes for the valorization of dark fermentative effluents.

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a Department of Civil Engineering , Inha University , Incheon , South Korea.
b School of Applied Biosciences , Kyungpook National University , Daegu , South Korea.
c Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering , University of Mauritius , Reduit , Republic of Mauritius.
d Department of Food Science & Biotechnology , Dongguk University- Seoul , Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si , Gyonggido , Republic of Korea.
e Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment , National University of Malaysia (UKM) , Selangor , Malaysia.
f Shanghai Key Lab for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration , School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University , Shanghai , PR China.
g LBE, INRA , Narbonne , France.
h Green Processing, Bioremediation and Alternative Energies Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety , Ton Duc Thang University , Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam.


This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed. Moreover, recent progress for enhanced performance towards waste stabilization and overall utilization of useful and higher COD present in the organic source into value-added products are extensively discussed.


Biohydrogen; bioelectrochemical systems (BESs); biomethane; bioplastics; dark and photo-fermentation; volatile fatty acids

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