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J Endocr Soc. 2017 Feb 28;1(4):302-312. doi: 10.1210/js.2017-00062. eCollection 2017 Apr 1.

Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Adipokines and Gut Hormones in Obese Men on a Hypocaloric Diet.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, and.
2
Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, 3084 Australia.

Abstract

Context:

In obese men with lowered testosterone levels, testosterone treatment augments diet-associated loss of body fat.

Objective:

We hypothesized that testosterone treatment modulates circulating concentrations of hormonal mediators of fat mass and energy homeostasis in obese men undergoing a weight loss program.

Design:

Prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting:

Tertiary referral center.

Participants:

Obese men (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) with a repeated total testosterone level ≤12 nmol/L.

Intervention:

One hundred participants mean age 53 years (interquartile range 47 to 60 years) receiving 10 weeks of a very low-energy diet followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (cases, n = 49) or matching placebo (controls, n = 51). Eighty-two men completed the study.

Main outcomes:

Between-group differences in leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin levels.

Results:

At study end, compared with controls, cases had greater reductions in leptin [mean adjusted difference (MAD), -3.6 ng/mL (95% CI, -5.3 to -1.9); P < 0.001]. The change in leptin levels between cases and controls was dependent on baseline fat mass, as the between-group difference progressively increased with increasing fat mass [MAD, -0.26 ng/mL (95% CI, -0.31 to -0.26); P = 0.001 per 1 kg of baseline fat mass]. Weight loss-associated changes in other hormones persisted during the weight maintenance phase but were not modified by testosterone treatment.

Conclusions:

Testosterone treatment led to reductions in leptin beyond those achieved by diet-associated weight loss. Testosterone treatment may reduce leptin resistance in obese men.

KEYWORDS:

energy homeostasis; leptin; obesity; testosterone

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