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Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2017 May-Aug;14(2):200-206. doi: 10.11138/ccmbm/2017.14.1.200. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Vitamin K and bone.

Author information

1
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), Pisa, Italy.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
3
"Ospedale N.S. di Bonaria", S. Gavino Monreale, Italy.
4
Department of Medicine, Medical Clinic 1, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
5
Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, "San Carlo Borromeo" Hospital, Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

Vitamin K is mainly known as an agent involved in blood coagulation, maintaining the activity of coagulation factors in the liver. In addition, epidemiological studies suggested that a lack of vitamin K is associated with several diseases, including osteoporosis and vascular calcification. There are two main kinds of vitamin K: Phylloquinone (or PK) and Menaquinones (MKn), both act as co-enzyme of y-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) transforming under-carboxylated in carboxylated vitamin K dependent proteins, such as Bone Gla Protein (or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein. Recently, Vitamin K was also identified as a ligand of the nuclear steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (in murine species Pregnane X Receptor: PXR), expressed in osteoblasts. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the protective role of Vitamin K in bone and vascular health.

KEYWORDS:

bone; fractures; vitamin D; vitamin K

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