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Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2017 May-Aug;14(2):200-206. doi: 10.11138/ccmbm/2017.14.1.200. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Vitamin K and bone.

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National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), Pisa, Italy.
Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
"Ospedale N.S. di Bonaria", S. Gavino Monreale, Italy.
Department of Medicine, Medical Clinic 1, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, "San Carlo Borromeo" Hospital, Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Milan, Italy.


Vitamin K is mainly known as an agent involved in blood coagulation, maintaining the activity of coagulation factors in the liver. In addition, epidemiological studies suggested that a lack of vitamin K is associated with several diseases, including osteoporosis and vascular calcification. There are two main kinds of vitamin K: Phylloquinone (or PK) and Menaquinones (MKn), both act as co-enzyme of y-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) transforming under-carboxylated in carboxylated vitamin K dependent proteins, such as Bone Gla Protein (or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein. Recently, Vitamin K was also identified as a ligand of the nuclear steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (in murine species Pregnane X Receptor: PXR), expressed in osteoblasts. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the protective role of Vitamin K in bone and vascular health.


bone; fractures; vitamin D; vitamin K

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