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Lancet Neurol. 2018 Jan;17(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30407-6. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

Collaborators (1330)

Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, van den Berg LA, Lingsma HF, Yoo AJ, Schonewille WJ, Vos JA, Nederkoorn PJ, Wermer MJ, van Walderveen MA, Staals J, Hofmeijer J, van Oostayen JA, Lycklama À Nijeholt GJ, Boiten J, Brouwer PA, Emmer BJ, de Bruijn SF, van Dijk LC, Kappelle J, Lo RH, van Dijk EJ, de Vries J, de Kort PLM, van Rooij WJJ, van den Berg JSP, van Hasselt BAAM, Aerden LAM, Dallinga RJ, Visser MC, Bot JCJ, Vroomen PC, Eshghi O, Schreuder THCML, Heijboer RJJ, Keizer K, Tielbeek AV, den Hertog HM, Gerrits DG, van den Berg-Vos RM, Karas GB, Steyerberg EW, Flach Z, Marquering HA, Sprengers MES, Jenniskens SFM, Beenen LFM, van den Berg R, Koudstaal PJ, van Zwam WH, Roos YBWEM, van der Lugt A, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Majoie CBLM, Dippel DWJ, Brown MM, Liebig T, Stijnen T, Andersson T, Mattle H, Wahlgren N, van der Heijden E, Ghannouti N, Fleitour N, Hooijenga I, Puppels C, Pellikaan W, Geerling A, Lindl-Velema A, van Vemde G, de Ridder A, Greebe P, de Bont-Stikkelbroeck J, de Meris J, Janssen K, Struijk W, Licher S, Boodt N, Ros A, Venema E, Slokkers I, Ganpat RJ, Mulder M, Saiedie N, Heshmatollah A, Schipperen S, Vinken S, van Boxtel T, Koets J, Boers M, Santos E, Borst J, Jansen I, Kappelhof M, Lucas M, Geuskens R, Barros RS, Dobbe R, Csizmadia M, Hill MD, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, Ryckborst KJ, Wright MR, Kamal NR, Andersen L, Randhawa PA, Stewart T, Patil S, Minhas P, Almekhlafi M, Mishra S, Clement F, Sajobi T, Shuaib A, Montanera WJ, Roy D, Silver FL, Jovin TG, Frei DF, Sapkota B, Rempel JL, Thornton J, Williams D, Tampieri D, Poppe AY, Dowlatshahi D, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Subramaniam S, Hull G, Lowerison MW, Sajobi T, Salluzzi M, Wright MR, Maxwell M, Lacusta S, Drupals E, Armitage K, Barber PA, Smith EE, Morrish WF, Coutts SB, Derdeyn C, Demaerschalk B, Yavagal D, Martin R, Brant R, Yu Y, Willinsky RA, Montanera WJ, Weill A, Kenney C, Aram H, Stewart T, Stys PK, Watson TW, Klein G, Pearson D, Couillard P, Trivedi A, Singh D, Klourfeld E, Imoukhuede O, Nikneshan D, Blayney S, Reddy R, Choi P, Horton M, Musuka T, Dubuc V, Field TS, Desai J, Adatia S, Alseraya A, Nambiar V, van Dijk R, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Morrish WF, Eesa M, Newcommon NJ, Shuaib A, Schwindt B, Butcher KS, Jeerakathil T, Buck B, Khan K, Naik SS, Emery DJ, Owen RJ, Kotylak TB, Ashforth RA, Yeo TA, McNally D, Siddiqui M, Saqqur M, Hussain D, Kalashyan H, Manosalva A, Kate M, Gioia L, Hasan S, Mohammad A, Muratoglu M, Williams D, Thornton J, Cullen A, Brennan P, O'Hare A, Looby S, Hyland D, Duff S, McCusker M, Hallinan B, Lee S, McCormack J, Moore A, O'Connor M, Donegan C, Brewer L, Martin A, Murphy S, O'Rourke K, Smyth S, Kelly P, Lynch T, Daly T, O'Brien P, O'Driscoll A, Martin M, Daly T, Collins R, Coughlan T, McCabe D, Murphy S, O'Neill D, Mulroy M, Lynch O, Walsh T, O'Donnell M, Galvin T, Harbison J, McElwaine P, Mulpeter K, McLoughlin C, Reardon M, Harkin E, Dolan E, Watts M, Cunningham N, Fallon C, Gallagher S, Cotter P, Crowe M, Doyle R, Noone I, Lapierre M, Coté VA, Lanthier S, Odier C, Durocher A, Raymond J, Weill A, Daneault N, Deschaintre Y, Jankowitz B, Baxendell L, Massaro L, Jackson-Graves C, Decesare S, Porter P, Armbruster K, Adams A, Billigan J, Oakley J, Ducruet A, Jadhav A, Giurgiutiu DV, Aghaebrahim A, Reddy V, Hammer M, Starr M, Totoraitis V, Wechsler L, Streib S, Rangaraju S, Campbell D, Rocha M, Gulati D, Silver FL, Krings T, Kalman L, Cayley A, Williams J, Stewart T, Wiegner R, Casaubon LK, Jaigobin C, Del Campo JM, Elamin E, Schaafsma JD, Willinsky RA, Agid R, Farb R, Ter Brugge K, Sapkoda BL, Baxter BW, Barton K, Knox A, Porter A, Sirelkhatim A, Devlin T, Dellinger C, Pitiyanuvath N, Patterson J, Nichols J, Quarfordt S, Calvert J, Hawk H, Fanale C, Frei DF, Bitner A, Novak A, Huddle D, Bellon R, Loy D, Wagner J, Chang I, Lampe E, Spencer B, Pratt R, Bartt R, Shine S, Dooley G, Nguyen T, Whaley M, McCarthy K, Teitelbaum J, Tampieri D, Poon W, Campbell N, Cortes M, Dowlatshahi D, Lum C, Shamloul R, Robert S, Stotts G, Shamy M, Steffenhagen N, Blacquiere D, Hogan M, AlHazzaa M, Basir G, Lesiuk H, Iancu D, Santos M, Choe H, Weisman DC, Jonczak K, Blue-Schaller A, Shah Q, MacKenzie L, Klein B, Kulandaivel K, Kozak O, Gzesh DJ, Harris LJ, Khoury JS, Mandzia J, Pelz D, Crann S, Fleming L, Hesser K, Beauchamp B, Amato-Marzialli B, Boulton M, Lopez-Ojeda P, Sharma M, Lownie S, Chan R, Swartz R, Howard P, Golob D, Gladstone D, Boyle K, Boulos M, Hopyan J, Yang V, Da Costa L, Holmstedt CA, Turk AS, Navarro R, Jauch E, Ozark S, Turner R, Phillips S, Shankar J, Jarrett J, Gubitz G, Maloney W, Vandorpe R, Schmidt M, Heidenreich J, Hunter G, Kelly M, Whelan R, Peeling L, Burns PA, Hunter A, Wiggam I, Kerr E, Watt M, Fulton A, Gordon P, Rennie I, Flynn P, Smyth G, O'Leary S, Gentile N, Linares G, McNelis P, Erkmen K, Katz P, Azizi A, Weaver M, Jungreis C, Faro S, Shah P, Reimer H, Kalugdan V, Saposnik G, Bharatha A, Li Y, Kostyrko P, Santos M, Marotta T, Montanera W, Sarma D, Selchen D, Spears J, Heo JH, Jeong K, Kim DJ, Kim BM, Kim YD, Song D, Lee KJ, Yoo J, Bang OY, Rho S, Lee J, Jeon P, Kim KH, Cha J, Kim SJ, Ryoo S, Lee MJ, Sohn SI, Kim CH, Ryu HG, Hong JH, Chang HW, Lee CY, Rha J, Davis SM, Donnan GA, Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Churilov L, Yan B, Dowling R, Yassi N, Oxley TJ, Wu TY, Silver G, McDonald A, McCoy R, Kleinig TJ, Scroop R, Dewey HM, Simpson M, Brooks M, Coulton B, Krause M, Harrington TJ, Steinfort B, Faulder K, Priglinger M, Day S, Phan T, Chong W, Holt M, Chandra RV, Ma H, Young D, Wong K, Wijeratne T, Tu H, Mackay E, Celestino S, Bladin CF, Loh PS, Gilligan A, Ross Z, Coote S, Frost T, Parsons MW, Miteff F, Levi CR, Ang T, Spratt N, Kaauwai L, Badve M, Rice H, de Villiers L, Barber PA, McGuinness B, Hope A, Moriarty M, Bennett P, Wong A, Coulthard A, Lee A, Jannes J, Field D, Sharma G, Salinas S, Cowley E, Snow B, Kolbe J, Stark R, King J, Macdonnell R, Attia J, D'Este C, Saver JL, Goyal M, Diener HC, Levy EI, Bonafé A, Mendes Pereira V, Jahan R, Albers GW, Cognard C, Cohen DJ, Hacke W, Jansen O, Jovin TG, Mattle HP, Nogueira RG, Siddiqui AH, Yavagal DR, von Kummer R, Smith W, Turjman F, Hamilton S, Chiacchierini R, Amar A, Sanossian N, Loh Y, Devlin T, Baxter B, Hawk H, Sapkota B, Quarfordt S, Sirelkhatim A, Dellinger C, Barton K, Reddy VK, Ducruet A, Jadhav A, Horev A, Giurgiutiu DV, Totoraitis V, Hammer M, Jankowitz B, Wechsler L, Rocha M, Gulati D, Campbell D, Star M, Baxendell L, Oakley J, Siddiqui A, Hopkins LN, Snyder K, Sawyer R, Hall S, Costalat V, Riquelme C, Machi P, Omer E, Arquizan C, Mourand I, Charif M, Ayrignac X, Menjot de Champfleur N, Leboucq N, Gascou G, Moynier M, du Mesnil de Rochemont R, Singer O, Berkefeld J, Foerch C, Lorenz M, Pfeilschifer W, Hattingen E, Wagner M, You SJ, Lescher S, Braun H, Dehkharghani S, Belagaje SR, Anderson A, Lima A, Obideen M, Haussen D, Dharia R, Frankel M, Patel V, Owada K, Saad A, Amerson L, Horn C, Doppelheuer S, Schindler K, Lopes DK, Chen M, Moftakhar R, Anton C, Smreczak M, Carpenter JS, Boo S, Rai A, Roberts T, Tarabishy A, Gutmann L, Brooks C, Brick J, Domico J, Reimann G, Hinrichs K, Becker M, Heiss E, Selle C, Witteler A, Al-Boutros S, Danch MJ, Ranft A, Rohde S, Burg K, Weimar C, Zegarac V, Hartmann C, Schlamann M, Göricke S, Ringlestein A, Wanke I, Mönninghoff C, Dietzold M, Budzik R, Davis T, Eubank G, Hicks WJ, Pema P, Vora N, Mejilla J, Taylor M, Clark W, Rontal A, Fields J, Peterson B, Nesbit G, Lutsep H, Bozorgchami H, Priest R, Ologuntoye O, Barnwell S, Dogan A, Herrick K, Takahasi C, Beadell N, Brown B, Jamieson S, Hussain MS, Russman A, Hui F, Wisco D, Uchino K, Khawaja Z, Katzan I, Toth G, Cheng-Ching E, Bain M, Man S, Farrag A, George P, John S, Shankar L, Drofa A, Dahlgren R, Bauer A, Itreat A, Taqui A, Cerejo R, Richmond A, Ringleb P, Bendszus M, Möhlenbruch M, Reiff T, Amiri H, Purrucker J, Herweh C, Pham M, Menn O, Ludwig I, Acosta I, Villar C, Morgan W, Sombutmai C, Hellinger F, Allen E, Bellew M, Gandhi R, Bonwit E, Aly J, Ecker RD, Seder D, Morris J, Skaletsky M, Belden J, Baker C, Connolly LS, Papanagiotou P, Roth C, Kastrup A, Politi M, Brunner F, Alexandrou M, Merdivan H, Ramsey C, Given Ii C, Renfrow S, Deshmukh V, Sasadeusz K, Vincent F, Thiesing JT, Putnam J, Bhatt A, Kansara A, Caceves D, Lowenkopf T, Yanase L, Zurasky J, Dancer S, Freeman B, Scheibe-Mirek T, Robison J, Rontal A, Roll J, Clark D, Rodriguez M, Fitzsimmons BF, Zaidat O, Lynch JR, Lazzaro M, Larson T, Padmore L, Das E, Farrow-Schmidt A, Hassan A, Tekle W, Cate C, Jansen O, Cnyrim C, Wodarg F, Wiese C, Binder A, Riedel C, Rohr A, Lang N, Laufs H, Krieter S, Remonda L, Diepers M, Añon J, Nedeltchev K, Kahles T, Biethahn S, Lindner M, Chang V, Gächter C, Esperon C, Guglielmetti M, Arenillas Lara JF, Martínez Galdámez M, Calleja Sanz AI, Cortijo Garcia E, Garcia Bermejo P, Perez S, Mulero Carrillo P, Crespo Vallejo E, Ruiz Piñero M, Lopez Mesonero L, Reyes Muñoz FJ, Brekenfeld C, Buhk JH, Krützelmann A, Thomalla G, Cheng B, Beck C, Hoppe J, Goebell E, Holst B, Grzyska U, Wortmann G, Starkman S, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Rao N, Sheth S, Ng K, Noorian A, Szeder V, Nour M, McManus M, Huang J, Tarpley J, Tateshima S, Gonzalez N, Ali L, Liebeskind D, Hinman J, Calderon-Arnulphi M, Liang C, Guzy J, Koch S, DeSousa K, Gordon-Perue G, Haussen D, Elhammady M, Peterson E, Pandey V, Dharmadhikari S, Khandelwal P, Malik A, Pafford R, Gonzalez P, Ramdas K, Andersen G, Damgaard D, Von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Simonsen C, Ruiz de Morales Ayudarte N, Poulsen M, Sørensen L, Karabegovich S, Hjørringgaard M, Hjort N, Harbo T, Sørensen K, Deshaies E, Padalino D, Swarnkar A, Latorre JG, Elnour E, El-Zammar Z, Villwock M, Farid H, Balgude A, Cross L, Hansen K, Holtmannspötter M, Kondziella D, Hoejgaard J, Taudorf S, Soendergaard H, Wagner A, Cronquist M, Stavngaard T, Cortsen M, Krarup LH, Hyldal T, Haring HP, Guggenberger S, Hamberger M, Trenkler J, Sonnberger M, Nussbaumer K, Dominger C, Bach E, Jagadeesan BD, Taylor R, Kim J, Shea K, Tummala R, Zacharatos H, Sandhu D, Ezzeddine M, Grande A, Hildebrandt D, Miller K, Scherber J, Hendrickson A, Jumaa M, Zaidi S, Hendrickson T, Snyder V, Killer-Oberpfalzer M, Mutzenbach J, Weymayr F, Broussalis E, Stadler K, Jedlitschka A, Malek A, Mueller-Kronast N, Beck P, Martin C, Summers D, Day J, Bettinger I, Holloway W, Olds K, Arkin S, Akhtar N, Boutwell C, Crandall S, Schwartzman M, Weinstein C, Brion B, Prothmann S, Kleine J, Kreiser K, Boeckh-Behrens T, Poppert H, Wunderlich S, Koch ML, Biberacher V, Huberle A, Gora-Stahlberg G, Knier B, Meindl T, Utpadel-Fischler D, Zech M, Kowarik M, Seifert C, Schwaiger B, Puri A, Hou S, Wakhloo A, Moonis M, Henninger N, Goddeau R, Massari F, Minaeian A, Lozano JD, Ramzan M, Stout C, Patel A, Tunguturi A, Onteddu S, Carandang R, Howk M, Ribó M, Sanjuan E, Rubiera M, Pagola J, Flores A, Muchada M, Meler P, Huerga E, Gelabert S, Coscojuela P, Tomasello A, Rodriguez D, Santamarina E, Maisterra O, Boned S, Seró L, Rovira A, Molina CA, Millán M, Muñoz L, Pérez de la Ossa N, Gomis M, Dorado L, López-Cancio E, Palomeras E, Munuera J, García Bermejo P, Remollo S, Castaño C, García-Sort R, Cuadras P, Puyalto P, Hernández-Pérez M, Jiménez M, Martínez-Piñeiro A, Lucente G, Dávalos A, Chamorro A, Urra X, Obach V, Cervera A, Amaro S, Llull L, Codas J, Balasa M, Navarro J, Ariño H, Aceituno A, Rudilosso S, Renu A, Macho JM, San Roman L, Blasco J, López A, Macías N, Cardona P, Quesada H, Rubio F, Cano L, Lara B, de Miquel MA, Aja L, Serena J, Cobo E, Albers GW, Lees KR, Arenillas J, Roberts R, Minhas P, Al-Ajlan F, Salluzzi M, Zimmel L, Patel S, Eesa M, Martí-Fàbregas J, Jankowitz B, Serena J, Salvat-Plana M, López-Cancio E, Bracard S, Ducrocq X, Anxionnat R, Baillot PA, Barbier C, Derelle AL, Lacour JC, Richard S, Samson Y, Sourour N, Baronnet-Chauvet F, Clarencon F, Crozier S, Deltour S, Di Maria F, Le Bouc R, Leger A, Mutlu G, Rosso C, Szatmary Z, Yger M, Zavanone C, Bakchine S, Pierot L, Caucheteux N, Estrade L, Kadziolka K, Leautaud A, Renkes C, Serre I, Desal H, Guillon B, Boutoleau-Bretonniere C, Daumas-Duport B, De Gaalon S, Derkinderen P, Evain S, Herisson F, Laplaud DA, Lebouvier T, Lintia-Gaultier A, Pouclet-Courtemanche H, Rouaud T, Rouaud Jaffrenou V, Schunck A, Sevin-Allouet M, Toulgoat F, Wiertlewski S, Gauvrit JY, Ronziere T, Cahagne V, Ferre JC, Pinel JF, Raoult H, Mas JL, Meder JF, Al Najjar-Carpentier AA, Birchenall J, Bodiguel E, Calvet D, Domigo V, Godon-Hardy S, Guiraud V, Lamy C, Majhadi L, Morin L, Naggara O, Trystram D, Turc G, Berge J, Sibon I, Menegon P, Barreau X, Rouanet F, Debruxelles S, Kazadi A, Renou P, Fleury O, Pasco-Papon A, Dubas F, Caroff J, Godard Ducceschi S, Hamon MA, Lecluse A, Marc G, Giroud M, Ricolfi F, Bejot Y, Chavent A, Gentil A, Kazemi A, Osseby GV, Voguet C, Mahagne MH, Sedat J, Chau Y, Suissa L, Lachaud S, Houdart E, Stapf C, Buffon Porcher F, Chabriat H, Guedin P, Herve D, Jouvent E, Mawet J, Saint-Maurice JP, Schneble HM, Turjman F, Nighoghossian N, Berhoune NN, Bouhour F, Cho TH, Derex L, Felix 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Erratum in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion undergoing endovascular thrombectomy under GA, versus thrombectomy not under GA (with or without sedation) versus standard care (ie, no thrombectomy), stratified by the use of GA versus standard care.

METHODS:

For this meta-analysis, patient-level data were pooled from all patients included in randomised trials in PuMed published between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2017, that compared endovascular thrombectomy predominantly done with stent retrievers with standard care in anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients (HERMES Collaboration). The primary outcome was functional outcome assessed by ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days in the GA and non-GA subgroups of patients treated with endovascular therapy versus those patients treated with standard care, adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. To account for between-trial variance we used mixed-effects modelling with a random effect for trials incorporated in all models. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane method. The meta-analysis was prospectively designed, but not registered.

FINDINGS:

Seven trials were identified by our search; of 1764 patients included in these trials, 871 were allocated to endovascular thrombectomy and 893 were assigned standard care. After exclusion of 74 patients (72 did not undergo the procedure and two had missing data on anaesthetic strategy), 236 (30%) of 797 patients who had endovascular procedures were treated under GA. At baseline, patients receiving GA were younger and had a shorter delay between stroke onset and randomisation but they had similar pre-treatment clinical severity compared with patients who did not have GA. Endovascular thrombectomy improved functional outcome at 3 months both in patients who had GA (adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) 1·52, 95% CI 1·09-2·11, p=0·014) and in those who did not have GA (adjusted cOR 2·33, 95% CI 1·75-3·10, p<0·0001) versus standard care. However, outcomes were significantly better for patients who did not receive GA versus those who received GA (covariate-adjusted cOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·14-2·04, p=0·0044). The risk of bias and variability between studies was assessed to be low.

INTERPRETATION:

Worse outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy were associated with GA, after adjustment for baseline prognostic variables. These data support avoidance of GA whenever possible. The procedure did, however, remain effective versus standard care in patients treated under GA, indicating that treatment should not be withheld in those who require anaesthesia for medical reasons.

FUNDING:

Medtronic.

PMID:
29263006
DOI:
10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30407-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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