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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Dec 19;11(12):e0006124. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006124. eCollection 2017 Dec.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of diarrhoea management approaches in Nigeria: A decision analytical model.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, PMB 5025, Nigeria.



Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death in Nigerian children under 5 years. Implementing the most cost-effective approach to diarrhoea management in Nigeria will help optimize health care resources allocation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various approaches to diarrhoea management namely: the 'no treatment' approach (NT); the preventive approach with rotavirus vaccine; the integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (IMCI); and rotavirus vaccine plus integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (rotavirus vaccine + IMCI).


Markov cohort model conducted from the payer's perspective was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the four interventions. The markov model simulated a life cycle of 260 weeks for 33 million children under five years at risk of having diarrhoea (well state). Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted was used to quantify clinical outcome. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) served as measure of cost-effectiveness.


Based on cost-effectiveness threshold of $2,177.99 (i.e. representing Nigerian GDP/capita), all the approaches were very cost-effective but rotavirus vaccine approach was dominated. While IMCI has the lowest ICER of $4.6/DALY averted, the addition of rotavirus vaccine was cost-effective with an ICER of $80.1/DALY averted. Rotavirus vaccine alone was less efficient in optimizing health care resource allocation.


Rotavirus vaccine + IMCI approach was the most cost-effective approach to childhood diarrhoea management. Its awareness and practice should be promoted in Nigeria. Addition of rotavirus vaccine should be considered for inclusion in the national programme of immunization. Although our findings suggest that addition of rotavirus vaccine to IMCI for diarrhoea is cost-effective, there may be need for further vaccine demonstration studies or real life studies to establish the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in Nigeria.

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