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Reprod Med Biol. 2015 Apr 11;14(4):151-157. doi: 10.1007/s12522-015-0207-7. eCollection 2015 Oct.

NK cell abnormality and its treatment in women with reproductive failures such as recurrent pregnancy loss, implantation failures, preeclampsia, and pelvic endometriosis.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine 5 Zaifu-cho 036-8562 Hirosaki Aomori Japan.


The regulation of uterine and peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells has been associated with problems related to reproductive immunology such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), implantation failure or preeclampsia. NKp46, one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), is a unique marker that functions in NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Expression of NKp46 on NK cells is lower in women with recurrent pregnancy loss and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Moreover, expression of NKp46 on peritoneal fluid NK cells is lower in women with pelvic endometriosis. Therefore, evaluation of NKp46 on peripheral blood NK cells may provide a means of screening for reproductive abnormalities. Recently, a new type of NK cell, the NK22 cell, has been reported. This cell may be a regulator not only of the mucosal barrier but also of reproduction. For women with RPL showing abnormal uterine and/or peripheral blood NK cells, both intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and intralipid treatment have been reported. The effects of these treatments are still controversial, and further studies are needed in order to clarify their true impact. The present review examines variations in the expression of NCRs on NK cells, the participation of NK22 cells in reproduction, and the possible use of intravenous immunoglobulin or intralipid treatment for women with recurrent pregnancy loss and NK cell abnormality.


Intralipid; Intravenous immunoglobulin; NK cell; Natural cytotoxicity receptor; Recurrent pregnancy loss

Conflict of interest statement

Atsushi Fukui, Mai Kamoi, Ayano Funamizu, Kohei Fuchinoue, Hitomi Chiba, Megumi Yokota, Rie Fukuhara and Hideki Mizunuma declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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