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J Atr Fibrillation. 2017 Feb 28;9(5):1510. doi: 10.4022/jafib.1510. eCollection 2017 Feb-Mar.

Reconnection Rate and Long-Term Outcome with Adenosine Provocation During Cryoballoon Ablation for Pulmonary Vein Isolation.

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Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine.



Adenosine can unmask dormant conduction during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF). Studies of adenosine use in radiofrequency PVI show high reconnection rates and conflicting results for long-term success, however there is limited data with cryoballoon ablation (CBA).


A prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing first CBA at a single institution was analyzed. Adenosine use was at the discretion of the primary operator. Additional freezes were delivered for reconnected veins until dormant conduction was eliminated. The primary endpoint, time to AF recurrence defined as any episode < 30 seconds after a 3-month blanking period, was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.


From 2011 to 2015, 406 patients underwent CBA, 361 of whom had > 3 months follow-up. The mean age was 61.7 years, 69% were male, and the prevalence of paroxysmal AF was 79% with no significant difference between those that did and did not receive adenosine (77% vs 86%, respectively, p = 0.23). Adenosine testing was performed in 78 patients (21.6%) with a mean dose of 10.6 mg/vein. Of the 306 veins evaluated, 17 (6%) demonstrated dormant conduction. Over a median 14.4 months follow-up, there was no significant difference in freedom from AF with adenosine use (p= 0.86).


Dormant conduction with adenosine is uncommon following CBA and its use does not improve long-term success rates.


Atrial fibrillation (AF); adenosine; atrial fibrillation; cryoballoon ablation; cryoballoon ablation (CBA); intracardiac echocardiography (ICE); pulmonary vein isolation (PVI); pulmonary vein isolation Abbreviations; radiofrequency ablation (RFA)

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