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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 Jan;39(1):1-11. doi: 10.1017/ice.2017.236. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Pathogen Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance Among Pediatric Healthcare-Associated Infections Reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, 2011-2014.

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1Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta,Georgia.
3Department of Epidemiology,Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore,Maryland.
5Department of Pediatrics,Columbia University, New York,New York.


OBJECTIVE To describe pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from pediatric locations during 2011-2014. METHODS Device-associated infection data were analyzed for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and surgical site infection (SSI). Pooled mean percentage resistance was calculated for a variety of pathogen-antimicrobial resistance pattern combinations and was stratified by location for device-associated infections (neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], pediatric intensive care units [PICUs], pediatric oncology and pediatric wards) and by surgery type for SSIs. RESULTS From 2011 to 2014, 1,003 hospitals reported 20,390 pediatric HAIs and 22,323 associated pathogens to the NHSN. Among all HAIs, the following pathogens accounted for more than 60% of those reported: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%), Escherichia coli (11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae and/or oxytoca (9%), and Enterococcus faecalis (8%). Among device-associated infections, resistance was generally lower in NICUs than in other locations. For several pathogens, resistance was greater in pediatric wards than in PICUs. The proportion of organisms resistant to carbapenems was low overall but reached approximately 20% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from CLABSIs and CAUTIs in some locations. Among SSIs, antimicrobial resistance patterns were similar across surgical procedure types for most pathogens. CONCLUSION This report is the first pediatric-specific description of antimicrobial resistance data reported to the NHSN. Reporting of pediatric-specific HAIs and antimicrobial resistance data will help identify priority targets for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship activities in facilities that provide care for children. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:1-11.

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