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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Mar;25(7):6228-6239. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0945-7. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai, 400098, India.
2
Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.
3
Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.
4
Department of Biotechnology, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai, 400098, India. drarath@mu.ac.in.

Abstract

Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g-1. Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM, Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M, dfr1, tetA, bla TEM, and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic-resistant genes; Food-borne pathogens; Horizontal gene transfer; Integrons; Marine fish; Metagenomic analysis; Multiple antibiotic resistance; R-plasmid

PMID:
29243150
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-017-0945-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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