Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Virchows Arch. 2018 Jan;472(1):159-172. doi: 10.1007/s00428-017-2277-x. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Gut microbiome: a new player in gastrointestinal disease.

Author information

1
Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstrasse 6, 8010, Graz, Austria. gregor.gorkiewicz@medunigraz.at.
2
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mucosal Immunology & Division of Internal Medicine I, Department of Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr-Strasse 1, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse and host-specific gut microbial community. Whereas host-microbe interactions are based on homeostasis and mutualism, the microbiome also contributes to disease development. In this review, we summarize recent findings connecting the GI microbiome with GI disease. Starting with a description of biochemical factors shaping microbial compositions in each gut segment along the longitudinal axis, improved histological techniques enabling high resolution visualization of the spatial microbiome structure are highlighted. Subsequently, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines are discussed and the respective changes in microbiome compositions summarized. Finally, approaches aiming to restore disturbed microbiome compositions thereby promoting health are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Carcinogenesis; Dysbiosis; Fecal microbiome transplantation; Gut microbiome; Inflammation; Spatial microbiome organization

PMID:
29243124
PMCID:
PMC5849673
DOI:
10.1007/s00428-017-2277-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center