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Clin Dermatol. 2018 Jan - Feb;36(1):14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2017.09.004. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome.

Author information

1
Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, South West Acute Hospital, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, UK.
2
Cardiology, Department of Medicine, South West Acute Hospital, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, UK.
3
Acute and General Medicine, Department of Medicine, South West Acute Hospital, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, UK; School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, UK. Electronic address: s.sreenivasan@qub.ac.uk.

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome-otherwise called syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven syndrome, and "the deadly quartet"-is the name given to the aggregate of clinical conditions comprising central and abdominal obesity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance (or type 2 diabetes mellitus), and atherogenic dyslipidemia. It is a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activity. In addition to inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, lichen planus, and hidradenitis suppurativa, metabolic syndrome is also commonly associated with accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hyperuricemia/gout, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Current therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome are limited to individual treatments for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as dietary control measures and regular exercise.

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