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Mol Oral Microbiol. 2018 Apr;33(2):168-180. doi: 10.1111/omi.12209. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

In silico analysis of the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in the dental biofilm.

Author information

1
Centro de Bioinformática y Simulación Molecular (CBSM), University of Talca, Talca, Chile.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Lambayeque, Peru.
3
Millennium Nucleus of Ion Channels-Associated Diseases (MiNICAD), Talca, Chile.
4
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
5
Cariology Unit, Department of Oral Rehabilitation and Interdisciplinary Excellence Research Program on Healthy Aging (PIEI-ES), University of Talca, Talca, Chile.

Abstract

During dental caries, the dental biofilm modifies the composition of the hundreds of involved bacterial species. Changing environmental conditions influence competition. A pertinent model to exemplify the complex interplay of the microorganisms in the human dental biofilm is the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. It has been reported that children and adults harbor greater numbers of S. sanguinis in the oral cavity, associated with caries-free teeth. Conversely, S. mutans is predominant in individuals with a high number of carious lesions. Competition between both microorganisms stems from the production of H2 O2 by S. sanguinis and mutacins, a type of bacteriocins, by S. mutans. There is limited evidence on how S. sanguinis survives its own H2 O2 levels, or if it has other mechanisms that might aid in the competition against S. mutans, nonetheless. We performed a genomic and metabolic pathway comparison, coupled with a comprehensive literature review, to better understand the competition between these two species. Results indicated that S. sanguinis can outcompete S. mutans by the production of an enzyme capable of metabolizing H2 O2 . S. mutans, however, lacks the enzyme and is susceptible to the peroxide from S. sanguinis. In addition, S. sanguinis can generate energy through gluconeogenesis and seems to have evolved different communication mechanisms, indicating that novel proteins may be responsible for intra-species communication.

KEYWORDS:

Streptococcus mutans ; Streptococcus sanguinis ; in silico ; competition; dental biofilm; dental caries; ecology; genomics; infection model

PMID:
29237244
DOI:
10.1111/omi.12209
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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