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J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Dec 13;15(1). pii: /j/jcim.2018.15.issue-1/jcim-2017-0086/jcim-2017-0086.xml. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2017-0086.

Citrullus colocynthis Linn. Fruit extract ameliorates cisplatin-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats.

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Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003 Lagos, Nigeria.


Background Cisplatin-induced acute liver and kidney injuries are serious problems in cancer patients during treatment of solid tumours. Objective This study sought to investigate possible protective effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis (CC) against cisplatin-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. Methods Thirty male albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into five groups (n=6) and treated as follows: group 1: vehicle (10 mL/kg, p.o.; normal control); group 2: vehicle (10 mL/kg); groups 3-5: CC (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively, for 10 days. Cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the 7th day to animals in groups (2-5) 1 h after pretreatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 for haematological, biochemical and histological analysis. Results Cisplatin induced a significant increase in the serum levels of ALT, ALP, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen indicative of hepato-renal injury. More so, cisplatin caused marked increase in granulocyte, lymphocyte and platelets counts which were ameliorated by CC (100-400 mg/kg) treatment. In addition, cisplatin induced marked increase in MDA and nitrite levels coupled with deficits in glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities which were attenuated by CC administration. In vitro assay showed that CC scavenged DPPH and nitrite radicals (69.50 and 64.50 µg/mL, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents are 24.27±0.09 mg QUE/g, 17.14±0.12 mg GAE/g and 10.20±0.09 mg QUE/g, respectively. CC preserved the liver and kidney histoarchitecture. Conclusions This study showed that C. colocynthis possesses hepatoprotective and nephroprotective actions possibly through enhancement of antioxidant defence system. Thus, it could be a potential adjuvant in cisplatin-based chemotherapy.


antioxidant; hepatoprotective; histology; liver injury; nephroprotective

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