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J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2017 Dec;7(4):334-339. doi: 10.1016/j.jceh.2017.05.010. Epub 2017 May 25.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection in a Tertiary Hospital Setting in Cameroon.

Author information

1
Internal Medicine Service, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon.
2
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
3
Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
4
Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Abstract

Background/Aims:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection is associated with more severe liver disease than HBV alone. More knowledge on the epidemiology and clinical impact of HDV-infected individuals is needed in Cameroon.We aimed at determining the frequency of anti-HDV antibody testing in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients, the proportion of anti-HDV positivity, and the characteristics of anti-HDV positive compared to anti-HDV negative patients in a tertiary hospital setting in Cameroon.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted. Clinical records of chronic HBV-infected patients attending the gastroenterology unit at the Douala General Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed.

Results:

Of 365 files of HBsAg-positive patients defined as chronic HBV infection, 80.5% (294) were tested for anti-HDV antibodies, among whom 10.5% (31/294) were positive. Median aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.0001), and gamma glutaryl transpeptidase (P < 0.0001) were significantly higher while platelets count (P < 0.002) and prothrombin time (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in anti-HDV positive compared to anti-HDV negative patients. Liver necroinflammation (P < 0.0001), fibrosis score (P < 0.0001), and decompensated cirrhosis (P < 0.0001) were also significantly associated with anti-HDV positivity.

Conclusion:

The proportion of anti-HDV antibody positivity remains high in this setting and was significantly associated with more severe liver disease compared to those who were anti-HDV negative. More studies are needed to evaluate rates of HDV testing in other centers in Cameroon and the subregion. Preventive strategies for HBV prevention, which also apply to HDV, must still be reinforced by healthcare providers and policy makers.

KEYWORDS:

AFP, alpha-fetoproteins; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; Cameroon; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GGT, gamma glutaryl transpeptidase; HBV; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HBe ab, hepatitis B e antibody; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HDV; HDV, hepatitis delta virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PT, prothrombin time; fibrosis; testing

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