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Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 11;7(1):17332. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17427-6.

Artemisia annua extract prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss by blocking receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-induced differentiation of osteoclasts.

Lee SK1, Kim H1,2, Park J1,3, Kim HJ1, Kim KR4, Son SH5, Park KK1,2,3, Chung WY6,7,8.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Biology, Oral Cancer Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, 03722, Korea.
2
Department of Applied Life Science, The Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea.
3
Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea.
4
Department of Dental Hygiene, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, 37224, Korea.
5
Department of Dental Hygiene, Gangdong College, Icheon, 27600, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Oral Biology, Oral Cancer Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, 03722, Korea. wychung@yuhs.ac.
7
Department of Applied Life Science, The Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea. wychung@yuhs.ac.
8
Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea. wychung@yuhs.ac.

Abstract

The activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are balanced to maintain normal bone density. Many pathological conditions cause osteoclastic bone resorption in excess of osteoblastic bone formation, resulting in osteoporosis. We found that oral administration of Artemisia annua ethanol extract (AaE) or major components, artemisinin and arteannuin B, to ovariectomized (OVX) mice prevented bone loss, as verified by examining three-dimensional images and bone morphometric parameters derived from microcomputed tomography analysis, as well as serum levels of bone turnover markers and proinflammatory cytokines. The administered doses were not toxic to the liver or kidney and showed promising effects that were comparable to those of 17β-estradiol treatment. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, AaE and active components, artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and arteannuin B, potently inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and the formation of osteoclast-mediated resorption pits. Furthermore, AaE, artemisinin, and arteannuin B remarkably reduced the expression of the c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors, which play critical roles in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, the in vivo anti-osteoporotic activity of AaE may be derived from the anti-osteoclastic and anti-bone resorptive activities of its active components. AaE has beneficial applications for the prevention and inhibition of osteoporosis and osteoclast-mediated bone diseases.

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