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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2018 Mar;1863(3):247-265. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.006. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
2
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
3
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Center for Explorative Lipidomics, BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.
4
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.
5
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: toni.petan@ijs.si.

Abstract

Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A2 (hGX sPLA2) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA2 releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA2-induced TAG remodelling and retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose triglyceride lipase; Breast cancer; Lipid droplets; Lipotoxicity; Secreted phospholipase A(2); Unsaturated fatty acids

PMID:
29229414
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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