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J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Dec 11;14(1):242. doi: 10.1186/s12974-017-1019-y.

Contrasting effect of the latency-reversing agents bryostatin-1 and JQ1 on astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation and brain neutrophil invasion.

Author information

1
Axe des Maladies Infectieuses et Immunitaires, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Pavillon CHUL, Québec, G1V 4G2, Canada.
2
Département d'obstétrique, gynécologie et reproduction, Faculté de Médecine,, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada.
3
Département de médecine familiale et d'urgence, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada.
4
Axe des Maladies Infectieuses et Immunitaires, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Pavillon CHUL, Québec, G1V 4G2, Canada. michel.j.tremblay@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca.
5
Département de Microbiologie-Infectiologie et Immunologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada. michel.j.tremblay@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite effectiveness of the combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists in long-lived latently infected cells. Consequently, new therapeutic approaches aimed at eliminating this latent reservoir are currently being developed. A "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRA) to reactivate HIV-1 has been proposed. However, the impact of LRA on the central nervous system (CNS) remains elusive.

METHODS:

We used human fetal astrocytes and investigated the effects of several LRA on their functional and secretory activities. Astrocytes were infected with VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 before treatment with various blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeable LRA at subcytotoxic doses, which allow HIV-1 reactivation based on previous in vitro and clinical studies. Cells and supernatants were then used to evaluate effects of infection and LRA on (i) viability and metabolic activity of astrocytes using a colorimetric MTS assay; (ii) chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines secretion and gene expression by astrocytes using ELISA and RT-qPCR, respectively; (iii) expression of complement component 3 (C3), a proxy for astrogliosis, by RT-qPCR; (iv) glutamate uptake capacity by a fluorometric assay; and (v) modulation of neutrophil transmigration across an in vitro BBB model.

RESULTS:

We demonstrate that bryostatin-1 induces secretion of chemokines CCL2 and IL-8 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and GM-CSF, whereas their production is repressed by JQ1. Bryostatin-1 also increases expression of complement component 3 and perturbs astrocyte glutamate homeostasis. Lastly, bryostatin-1 enhances transmigration of neutrophils across an in vitro blood-brain barrier model and induces formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

CONCLUSIONS:

These observations highlight the need to carefully assess the potential harmful effect to the CNS when selecting LRA for HIV-1 reactivation strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Astrocytes; CNS; Excitotoxicity; HIV-1 latency; LRA; NETosis; Neuroinflammation

PMID:
29228979
PMCID:
PMC5725742
DOI:
10.1186/s12974-017-1019-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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