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J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 May/Jun;24(3):215-224. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000702.

Evaluating the Potential Health and Revenue Outcomes of a 100% Healthy Vending Machine Nutrition Policy at a Large Agency in Los Angeles County, 2013-2015.

Author information

Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California (Mss Wickramasekaran and Robles, Mr Dewey, and Dr Kuo); Departments of Community Health Sciences (Ms Robles) and Epidemiology (Mr Dewey and Dr Kuo), UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California; and Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (Dr Kuo).



Healthy vending machine policies are viewed as a promising strategy for combating the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Few studies have evaluated the short- and intermediate-term outcomes of healthy vending policies, especially for interventions that require 100% healthy products to be stocked.


To evaluate the potential impact of a 100% healthy vending machine nutrition policy.


The vendor's quarterly revenue, product sales records, and nutritional information data from 359 unique vending machines were used to conduct a baseline and follow-up policy analysis.


County of Los Angeles facilities, 2013-2015.


Vending machines in facilities located across Los Angeles County.


A healthy vending machine policy executed in 2013 that required 100% of all products sold in contracted machines meet specified nutrition standards.


Policy adherence; average number of calories, sugar, and sodium in food products sold; revenue change.


Policy adherence increased for snacks and beverages sold by the vending machines by 89% and 98%, respectively. Average snack and beverage revenues decreased by 37% and 34%, respectively, during the sampled period.


Although a 100% healthy vending policy represents a promising strategy for encouraging purchases of healthier foods, steps should be taken to counteract potential revenue changes when planning its implementation.

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