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J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2018 Jan;79(1):58-67.

Alcohol Consumption and the Physical Availability of Take-Away Alcohol: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Days and Hours of Sale and Outlet Density.

Author information

1
Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
2
National Drug Research Institute, Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
3
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.
5
STAD, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
6
University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California.
7
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
8
Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
9
Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses.

METHOD:

Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol. Studies were included up to December 2015. Quality criteria were used to select articles that studied the effect of changes in these policies on alcohol consumption with a focus on natural experiments. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to produce the estimated effect of an additional day of sale on total and beverage-specific consumption.

RESULTS:

Separate systematic reviews identified seven studies regarding days and hours of sale and four studies regarding density. The majority of articles included in these systematic reviews, for days/hours of sale (7/7) and outlet density (3/4), concluded that restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol reduces per capita alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses studying the effect of adding one additional day of sale found that this was associated with per capita consumption increases of 3.4% (95% CI [2.7, 4.1]) for total alcohol, 5.3% (95% CI [3.2, 7.4]) for beer, 2.6% (95% CI [1.8, 3.5]) for wine, and 2.6% (95% CI [2.1, 3.2]) for spirits. The small number of included studies regarding hours of sale and density precluded meta-analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this study suggest that decreasing the physical availability of take-away alcohol will decrease per capita consumption. As decreasing per capita consumption has been shown to reduce alcohol-related harm, restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol would be expected to result in improvements to public health.

PMID:
29227232
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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