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J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63(5):349-354. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.63.349.

Combination Effect of δ-Tocotrienol and γ-Tocopherol on Prostate Cancer Cell Growth.

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Graduate School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Toyo University.
Research Institute of Life Innovation, Toyo University.
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University.


Tocotrienols (T3s) and tocopherols (Tocs) are both members of the vitamin E family. It is known that δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) has displayed the most potent anti-cancer activity amongst the tocotrienols. On the other hand, γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) is reported to have a protective effect against prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of γ-Toc and δ-T3 could strengthen the inhibitory effect of δ-T3 on prostate cancer cell growth. In this study the effect of combined δ-T3 (annatto T3 oil) and γ-Toc (Tmix, γ-Toc-rich oil) therapy was assessed against human androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). We found that combined treatment of δ-T3 (10 μM) and γ-Toc (5 μM) resulted in reinforced anti-prostate cancer activity. Specifically, cell cycle phase distribution analysis revealed that in addition to G1 arrest caused by the treatment with δ-T3, the combination of δ-T3 with γ-Toc induced G2/M arrest. Enhanced induction of apoptosis by the combined treatment was also observed. These findings indicate that combination of δ-T3 and γ-Toc significantly inhibits prostate cancer cell growth due to the simultaneous cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and G2/M phase.


combination; prevention; prostate cancer; γ-tocpherol; δ-tocotrienol

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