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Int J Clin Exp Physiol. 2017;4(3):111-122. doi: 10.4103/ijcep.ijcep_43_17.

Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease.

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Molecular Toxicology Research laboratory, NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, MS 39217, USA.
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S Columbian Way (S-113), Seattle, WA 98108, USA.


Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome.


differential diagnosis; hyperkalemia; hypokalemia; oxidative stress; potassium excretion; potassium homeostasis

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