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Ophthalmology. 2018 Apr;125(4):529-536. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.10.026. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Author information

1
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore.
2
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
3
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Khoo Teck Phuat Hospital, Singapore.
4
Center for Vision Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
5
Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore.
6
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore.
7
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address: wong.tien.yin@snec.com.sg.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) Study.

DESIGN:

Population-based, cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS:

Persons of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicity aged 40+ years, living in Singapore.

METHODS:

Diabetes was defined as nonfasting plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >6.5%, self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, or the use of glucose-lowering medication. Retinal photographs, were graded for the presence and severity of DR using the modified Airlie House classification system.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR), defined as the presence of severe nonproliferative or proliferative DR, or clinically significant macular edema (CSME).

RESULTS:

Of the 10 033 subjects, 2877 (28.7%) had diabetes and gradable photographs for analysis. The overall age-standardized prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 28.2% (25.9-30.6) for any DR, 7.6% (6.5-9.0) for DME, and 7.7% (6.6-9.0) for VTDR. Indians had a higher prevalence of any DR (30.7% vs. 26.2% in Chinese and 25.5% in Malays, P = 0.012); a similar trend was noted for any DME (P = 0.001) and CSME (P = 0.032). Independent risk factors for any DR were Indian ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83, vs. Chinese), diabetes duration (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.11, per year), HbA1c (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.32, per %), serum glucose (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06, per mmol/l), and systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19, per 10 mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84, per 10 mmHg increase), total cholesterol (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95, per mmol/l increase), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92, per mmol/l increase) were associated with lower odds of any DR. Risk factors were largely similar across the 3 ethnic groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Indian Singaporeans have a higher prevalence of DR and DME compared with Chinese and Malays. Major risk factors for DR in this study were similar across the 3 ethnic groups. Addressing these risk factors may reduce the impact of DR in Asia, regardless of ethnicity.

PMID:
29217148
DOI:
10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.10.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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