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Anesth Analg. 2018 Jul;127(1):30-38. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002674.

Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Outcomes in Adult Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies.

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From the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital, Jinhua Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.
Department of Surgery, Emory Critical Care Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.



Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated to prevent organ dysfunction in cardiac surgery patients. However, recent large, prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) had controversial results. Thus, a meta-analysis of RCTs was performed to investigate whether RIPC can reduce the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients.


Study data were collected from Medline, Elsevier, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases. RCTs involving the effect of RIPC on organ protection in cardiac surgery patients, which reported the concentration or total release of creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin I/troponin T (TNI/TNT) after operation, or the incidence of AMI, AKI, or mortality, were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data using a standardized data extraction protocol where TNI or TNT concentrations; total TNI released after cardiac surgery; and the incidence of AKI, AMI, and mortality were recorded. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to analyze the data.


Thirty trials, including 7036 patients were included in the analyses. RIPC significantly decreased the concentration of TNI/TNT (standard mean difference [SMD], -0.25 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.41 to -0.048 ng/mL; P = .004), creatine kinase-myocardial band (SMD, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.07-0.35 ng/mL; P = .46), and the total TNI/TNT release (SMD, -0.49 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.93 to -0.55 ng/mL; P = .03) in cardiac surgery patients after a procedure. However, RIPC could not reduce the incidence of AMI (relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.13; P = .34) and AKI (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.72-1.06; P = .18), and there was also no effect of RIPC on mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Interestingly, subgroup analysis showed that RIPC reduced incidence of AKI and mortality of cardiac surgery patients who received volatile agent anesthesia.


Our meta-analysis demonstrated that RIPC reduced TNI/TNT release after cardiac surgery. RIPC did not significantly reduce the incidence of AKI, AMI, and mortality. However, RIPC could reduce mortality in patients receiving volatile inhalational agent anesthesia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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