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Nutr Res Pract. 2017 Dec;11(6):479-486. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2017.11.6.479. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

The effects of daily intake timing of almond on the body composition and blood lipid profile of healthy adults.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Sookmyung Women's University, Chungpa-Dong 2-Ka, Yongsan-Ku, Seoul 04310, Korea.
ICAN Nutrition Education and Research, 20, Gukjegeumyung-ro, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 07327, Korea.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Sangji University, Gangwon 26339, Korea.
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea.



Timing of almond intake during a day may result differently in the perspectives of body composition and changes of lipid profile. The current study was conducted to compare the effects of daily almond intake as a preload versus as a snack on body composition, blood lipid profile, and oxidative and inflammation indicators among young Korean adults aged 20-39 years old.


Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a pre-meal almond group (PM), a snack almond group (SN) in which participants were instructed to consume 56 g of almonds either as a preload before meals or as a snack between meals, respectively, and a control group (CL) in which participants were provided high-carbohydrate iso-caloric control food. Measurements were performed at baseline, weeks 8 and 16.


A total of 169 (M 77/F 92) out of the 227 participants completed the study between June 2014 and June 2015 (n = 58 for PM; 55 for SN; and 56 for CL). A significant decrease in body fat mass was observed in the PM group at both weeks 8 and 16 compared with the CL. There were significant intervention effects on changes of body fat mass (P = 0.025), body fat percentages (P = 0.019), and visceral fat levels (P < 0.001). Consuming almonds as a daily snack reduced the levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.043) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 0.011) without changing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with the CL.


Almond consumption as a preload modified body fat percentages, whereas snacking on almonds between meals improved blood lipid profiles. This trial was registered at as NCT03014531.


Almonds; body composition; snacking

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