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PLoS One. 2017 Dec 4;12(12):e0188892. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188892. eCollection 2017.

One year follow-up after a randomized controlled trial of a 130 g/day low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control.

Author information

1
Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni-shi, Shizuoka, Japan.
3
Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Department of Nutrition, Juntendo University Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
6
Center for Identification of Diabetic Therapeutic Targets, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Recently, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) showing that a 6-month 130g/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) reduced HbA1c and BMI more than a calorie restricted diet (CRD). [1] To assess whether the benefits of the LCD persisted after the intensive intervention, we compared HbA1c and BMI between the LCD and CRD groups at 1 year after the end of the 6-month RCT.

METHODS:

Following the end of the 6-month RCT, patients were allowed to manage their own diets with periodic outpatient visits. One year later, we analyzed clinical and nutrition data.

RESULTS:

Of the 66 participants in the original study, 27 in the CRD group and 22 in the LCD group completed this trial. One year after the end of the original RCT, the carbohydrate intake was comparable between the groups (215 [189-243]/day in the CRD group and 214 (176-262) g/day in the LCD group). Compared with the baseline data, HbA1c and BMI were decreased in both groups (CRD: HbA1c -0.4 [-0.9 to 0.3] % and BMI -0.63 [-1.20 to 0.18] kg/m2; LCD: HbA1c -0.35 [-1.0 to 0.35] % and BMI -0.77 [-1.15 to -0.12] kg/m2). There were no significant differences in HbA1c and BMI between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

One year after the diet therapy intervention, the beneficial effect of the LCD on reduction of HbA1c and BMI did not persist in comparison with CRD. However, combining the data of both groups, significant improvements in HbA1c and BMI from baseline were observed. Although the superiority of the LCD disappeared 1 year after the intensive intervention, these data suggest that well-constructed nutrition therapy programs, both CRD and LCD, were equally effective in improving HbA1c for at least 1 year.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) ID000010663.

PMID:
29206237
PMCID:
PMC5714344
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0188892
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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