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Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 Feb;42(2):387-396. doi: 10.1111/acer.13569. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Validation of Alcohol Flushing Questionnaires in Determining Inactive Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 and Its Clinical Implication in Alcohol-Related Diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoungnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
2
Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3
School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
4
Incheon Research Institute of Public Health and Environment , Incheon, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Our aim was to validate alcohol flushing questionnaires in detecting inactive ALDH2 (ALDH2*1/*2 or ALDH2*2/*2).

METHODS:

Two study sets were established; in study set 1, 210 healthy male subjects (age 22 to 59 years) were enrolled; in study set 2, 756 subjects were enrolled who received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to evaluate their dyspeptic symptoms or as part of a gastric cancer screening program. Subjects in study sets 1 and 2 completed the modified alcohol flushing questionnaires of Yokoyama and colleagues (, ). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to determine ALDH2 genotype.

RESULTS:

In study set 1, 29.0% (61 of 210) had inactive ALDH2. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified alcohol flushing questionnaire for detecting inactive ALDH2 were 95.1 and 76.5%, respectively. Drinking problems negatively correlated with positive alcohol flushing response and inactive ALDH2 (all p-values < 0.05). In study set 2, the sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol flushing questionnaire for detecting inactive ALDH2 were 78.9 and 82.1%, respectively. Interestingly, drinking ≥7 units/wk in men or ≥3.5 units/wk in women significantly increased the risk of benign gastric ulcer (BGU) among positive alcohol flushers (odds ratio, 8.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 58.30), but not among negative alcohol flushers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Simple flushing questionnaires may be administered to the Korean population as a screening tool in detecting individuals who carry inactive ALDH2. Alcohol flushing response negatively correlates with drinking problems and can modify the risk for BGU by alcohol intake.

KEYWORDS:

ALDH2 ; Alcohol; Alcohol Flushing; Questionnaire; Reliability

PMID:
29205834
DOI:
10.1111/acer.13569

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