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Cancer. 2017 Dec 15;123 Suppl 24:5059-5078. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30820.

Liver cancer survival in the United States by race and stage (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

Author information

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Cancer Survival Group, Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.



Worldwide, liver cancer is a leading cause of death for both men and women. The number of Americans who are diagnosed with and die of liver cancer has been rising slowly each year. Using data from the CONCORD-2 study, this study examined population-based survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis.


Data from 37 statewide registries, which covered 81% of the US population, for patients diagnosed during 2001-2009 were analyzed. Survival up to 5 years was adjusted for background mortality (net survival) with state- and race-specific life tables, and it was age-standardized with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights.


Liver cancer was diagnosed overall more often at the localized stage, with blacks being more often diagnosed at distant and regional stages than whites. 5-year net survival was 12.2% in 2001-2003 and 14.8% in 2004-2009. Whites had higher survival than blacks in both calendar periods (11.7% vs 9.1% and 14.3% vs 11.4%, respectively). During 2004-2009, 5-year survival was 25.7% for localized-stage disease, 9.5% for regional-stage disease, and 3.5% for distant-stage disease.


Some progress has occurred in survival for patients with liver cancer, but 5-year survival remains low, even for those diagnosed at the localized stage. Efforts directed at controlling well-established risk factors such as hepatitis B may have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of liver cancer in the United States. Cancer 2017;123:5059-78. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


cancer registries; hepatitis; liver; population-based survival

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