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Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017 Nov 23;6:119. doi: 10.1186/s13756-017-0277-x. eCollection 2017.

Genome sequencing and analysis of the first spontaneous Nanosilver resistant bacterium Proteus mirabilis strain SCDR1.

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Genetics and Biotechnology Department, Strategic Center for Diabetes Research, College of medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Genetics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Human Genome Project, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Integrated Gulf Biosystems, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. We isolated P. mirabilis SCDR1 from a Diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, the commercial Nanosilver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the characterization of the infectious pathogen.


P. mirabilis SCDR1 was the first Nanosilver resistant isolate collected from a diabetic patient polyclonal infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 showed high levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, Nanosilver chitosan composite and the commercially available Nanosilver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis -SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp. with G + C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3533 genes, 3414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, the wound, can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance, including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification.


P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the first reported spontaneous Nanosilver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed Nanosilver resistance.


Biofilm formation; Copper/silver efflux system; Genome analysis; Glutathione S-transferase; Multi-drug resistance; Pathogenomics; Proteus Mirabilis; Resistome; Silver nanoparticles; Swarming mobility

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