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Fertil Steril. 2017 Dec;108(6):993-998. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.09.014.

Perinatal outcomes after natural conception versus in vitro fertilization (IVF) in gestational surrogates: a model to evaluate IVF treatment versus maternal effects.

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Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles, California.
Department of Preventative Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.



To study the perinatal outcomes between singleton live births achieved with the use of commissioned versus spontaneously conceived embryos carried by the same gestational surrogate.


Retrospective cohort study.


Academic in vitro fertilization center.


Gestational surrogate.




Pregnancy outcome, gestational age at birth, birth weight, perinatal complications.


We identified 124 gestational surrogates who achieved a total of 494 pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes for surrogate and spontaneous pregnancies were significantly different (P<.001), with surrogate pregnancies more likely to result in twin pregnancies: 33% vs. 1%. Miscarriage and ectopic rates were similar. Of these pregnancies, there were 352 singleton live births: 103 achieved from commissioned embryos and 249 conceived spontaneously. Surrogate births had lower mean gestational age at delivery (38.8 ± 2.1 vs. 39.7 ± 1.4), higher rates of preterm birth (10.7% vs. 3.1%), and higher rates of low birth weight (7.8% vs. 2.4%). Neonates from surrogacy had birth weights that were, on average, 105 g lower. Surrogate births had significantly higher obstetrical complications, including gestational diabetes, hypertension, use of amniocentesis, placenta previa, antibiotic requirement during labor, and cesarean section.


Neonates born from commissioned embryos and carried by gestational surrogates have increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, hypertension, maternal gestational diabetes, and placenta previa, compared with singletons conceived spontaneously and carried by the same woman. Our data suggest that assisted reproductive procedures may potentially affect embryo quality and that its negative impact can not be overcome even with a proven healthy uterine environment.


Assisted reproductive technology; embryo culture; gestational carrier; gestational surrogacy; in vitro fertilization; perinatal outcome

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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