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Respir Res. 2017 Dec 4;18(1):201. doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0679-6.

Autonomic nervous system involvement in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, BH 520A CHS, USA.
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, BH 520A CHS, USA. sumar@mednet.ucla.edu.

Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening. Reduction of neurohormonal activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for PAH. Although therapies targeting adrenergic receptors or RAAS signaling pathways have been shown to reverse cardiac remodeling and improve outcomes in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)-models, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments in clinical settings have been uncertain. Recently, novel direct methods such as cervical ganglion block, pulmonary artery denervation (PADN), and renal denervation have been employed to attenuate SNS activation in PAH. In this review, we intend to summarize the multiple aspects of autonomic nervous system involvement in PAH and overview the different pharmacological and invasive strategies used to target autonomic nervous system for the treatment of PAH.

KEYWORDS:

Autonomic nervous system; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Renin angiotensin aldosterone system; Right ventricle; Sympathetic nervous system

PMID:
29202826
PMCID:
PMC5715548
DOI:
10.1186/s12931-017-0679-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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