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Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017 Dec;120:141-150. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.11.001. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

The role of Nuclear Factor-kappa B signaling in human cervical cancer.

Author information

1
Multidisciplinary Oncologic Centre Antwerp (MOCA) Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium.
2
Phase I - Early Clinical Trials Unit & Center for Oncological Research (CORE), Antwerp University, Belgium.
3
Multidisciplinary Oncologic Centre Antwerp (MOCA) Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium; Phase I - Early Clinical Trials Unit & Center for Oncological Research (CORE), Antwerp University, Belgium.
4
Multidisciplinary Oncologic Centre Antwerp (MOCA) Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium; Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Antwerp University Hospital & Centre of Oncologic Research (CORE), Antwerp University, Belgium.
5
Multidisciplinary Oncologic Centre Antwerp (MOCA) Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium; Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Antwerp University Hospital & Centre of Oncologic Research (CORE), Antwerp University, Belgium. Electronic address: peter.vandam@uza.be.

Abstract

Background The Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kB) family consists of transcription factors that play a complex and essential role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. NF-kB has recently generated considerable interest as it has been implicated in human cancer initiation, progression and resistance to treatment. In the present comprehensive review the different aspects of NF-kB signaling in the carcinogenesis of cancer of the uterine cervix are discussed. NF-kB functions as part of a network, which determines the pattern of its effects on the expression of several other genes (such as crosstalks with reactive oxygen species, p53, STAT3 and miRNAS) and thus its function. Activation of NF-kB triggered by a HPV infection is playing an important role in the innate and adaptive immune response of the host. The virus induces down regulation of NF-kB to liquidate the inhibitory activity for its replication triggered by the immune system leading a status of persistant HPV infection. During the progression to high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer NF-KB becomes constitutionally activated again. Mutations in NF-kB genes are rare in solid tumors but mutations of upstream signaling molecules such as RAS, EGFR, PGF, HER2 have been implicated in elevated NF-kB signaling. NF-kB can stimulate transcription of proliferation regulating genes (eg. cyclin D1 and c-myc), genes involved in metastasis, VEGF dependent angiogenesis and cell immortality by telomerase. NF-kB activation can also induce the expression of activation-induced cytodine deaminase (AID) and the APOBEC proteins, providing a mechanistic link between the NF-kB pathway and mutagenic characteristic of cervical cancer. Inhibition of NF-kB has the potential to be used to reverse resistance to radiotherapy and systemic anti-cancer medication, but currently no clinicaly active NF-kB targeting strategies are available.

KEYWORDS:

Carcinogenesis; Cervical cancer; HPV; NFkB; NFkappaB

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