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Environ Res. 2018 Feb;161:399-408. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.015.

UV-filters and musk fragrances in seafood commercialized in Europe Union: Occurrence, risk and exposure assessment.

Author information

1
LAQV-Requimte, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: sara.cunha@ff.up.pt.
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.
3
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium; Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Belgium.
4
LAQV-Requimte, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
5
Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Ctra. de Poble Nou, E-43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona, Spain.
6
Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Denmark.
7
Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Belgium.
8
Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Netherlands.
9
Aeiforia Srl, aggiola 12-16, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano, Piacenza, Italy.
10
Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit - Fisheries, Belgium.
11
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium; Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Belgium.
12
Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Portugal.
13
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain.

Abstract

In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs - EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values.

KEYWORDS:

Fish; GC-MS/MS; Musk fragrances; Occurrence; Risk assessment; UV-filters

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