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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2018 Feb;44(2):321-331. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.10.010. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

An Ultrasound Surface Wave Technique for Assessing Skin and Lung Diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address: zhang.xiaoming@mayo.edu.
2
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
3
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
4
Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
5
Department of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Abstract

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ connective tissue disease characterized by immune dysregulation and organ fibrosis. Severe organ involvement, especially of the skin and lung, is the cause of morbidity and mortality in SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes multiple lung disorders in which the lung tissue is fibrotic and stiffened. The purpose of this study was to translate ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) for assessing patients with SSc and/or ILD via measuring surface wave speeds of both skin and superficial lung tissue. Forty-one patients with both SSc and ILD and 30 healthy patients were enrolled in this study. An external harmonic vibration was used to generate the wave propagation on the skin or lung. Three excitation frequencies of 100, 150 and 200 Hz were used. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the tissue non-invasively. Surface wave speeds were measured on the forearm and upper arm of both left and right arm, as well as the upper and lower lungs, through six intercostal spaces of patients and healthy patients. Viscoelasticity of the skin was calculated by the wave speed dispersion with frequency using the Voigt model. The magnitudes of surface wave speed and viscoelasticity of patients' skin were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p <0.0001) for each location and each frequency. The surface wave speeds of patients' lung were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p <0.0001) for each location and each frequency. USWE is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique for measuring both skin and lung surface wave speed and may be useful for quantitative assessment of SSc and/or ILD.

KEYWORDS:

Interstitial lung disease; Lung; Scleroderma; Skin; Ultrasound surface wave elastography

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