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Chemosphere. 2018 Mar;194:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.125. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Immunotoxicity of bisphenol S and F are similar to that of bisphenol A during zebrafish early development.

Author information

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China.
2
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai 200235, China.
3
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.
4
Department of Cardiology, Huangshan People's Hospital, Huangshan, Anhui 245000, China.
5
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. Electronic address: mingyang@shu.edu.cn.
6
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China. Electronic address: zhengy@sustc.edu.cn.

Abstract

Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) have been increasingly used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) owing to health concerns. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of these two BPA analogs on oxidative stress and the immune system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development. Environmentally relevant levels of BPS and BPF exposure could increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, nitric oxide (NO) content, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the expression of immunity-related genes in concentration dependent manners during the early developmental stages in zebrafish. At a concentration of 100 μg/L, BPS and BPF showed similar effects on the immune toxicity of zebrafish as that of BPA. Moreover, BPS and BPF induced both erα and nf-κb expression, and antagonists of estrogen receptor and NF-κB blocked the effects on immunity-related gene expression, providing evidence that the two pathways mediate the actions of BPS and BPF on fish immune response and functions. Thus we conclude that the presence of BPS and BPF in the environment, similar to BPA, may also pose risks to ecosystem and human health and cannot be widely used without limitations and precautions.

KEYWORDS:

Bisphenols; Estrogen receptor; Immune regulation; Nuclear factor-κb; Oxidative stress; Zebrafish

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