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Am J Transplant. 2018 Feb;18(2):321-327. doi: 10.1111/ajt.14610. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

The bridge between transplantation and regenerative medicine: Beginning a new Banff classification of tissue engineering pathology.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Medical Anthropology Program, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Division of Urology GOFARR Laboratory for Organ Regenerative Research and Cell Therapeutics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Saban Research Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, UPMC-Montefiore, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


The science of regenerative medicine is arguably older than transplantation-the first major textbook was published in 1901-and a major regenerative medicine meeting took place in 1988, three years before the first Banff transplant pathology meeting. However, the subject of regenerative medicine/tissue engineering pathology has never received focused attention. Defining and classifying tissue engineering pathology is long overdue. In the next decades, the field of transplantation will enlarge at least tenfold, through a hybrid of tissue engineering combined with existing approaches to lessening the organ shortage. Gradually, transplantation pathologists will become tissue-(re-) engineering pathologists with enhanced skill sets to address concerns involving the use of bioengineered organs. We outline ways of categorizing abnormalities in tissue-engineered organs through traditional light microscopy or other modalities including biomarkers. We propose creating a new Banff classification of tissue engineering pathology to standardize and assess de novo bioengineered solid organs transplantable success in vivo. We recommend constructing a framework for a classification of tissue engineering pathology now with interdisciplinary consensus discussions to further develop and finalize the classification at future Banff Transplant Pathology meetings, in collaboration with the human cell atlas project. A possible nosology of pathologic abnormalities in tissue-engineered organs is suggested.


bioengineering; biomarker; biopsy; cellular transplantation (non-islet); classification systems: Banff classification; editorial/personal viewpoint; pathology/histopathology; regenerative medicine; tissue injury and repair; translational research/science

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