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Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 6;8(54):93279-93294. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21565. eCollection 2017 Nov 3.

Inflammatory microenvironment in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer.

Sui X#1,2, Lei L#3, Chen L#4, Xie T1,2, Li X5,6.

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Department of Medical Oncology Holistic Integrative Oncology Institutes and Holistic Integrative Pharmacy Institutes, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, College of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China.
Department of Medical Oncology Holistic Integrative Cancer Center of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangzhou, China.
Department of Medical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Departments of Urology and Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Contributed equally


Accumulating evidence suggests the idea that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in various malignancies including bladder cancer and long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is significantly effective in reducing certain cancer incidence and mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to malignant transformation and the progression of bladder cancer in a chronically inflammatory environment remain largely unknown. In this review, we will describe the role of inflammation in the formation and development of bladder cancer and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation regulates cell immune response, proliferation and metastasis. Understanding the novel function orchestrating inflammation and bladder cancer will hopefully provide us insights into their future clinical significance in preventing bladder carcinogenesis and progression.


bladder cancer; development; inflammation; tumorigenesis

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare no conflicts of interest. None of the contents of this manuscript has been previously published or is under consideration elsewhere. All the authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript prior to submission.

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