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Urolithiasis. 2018 Oct;46(5):419-428. doi: 10.1007/s00240-017-1023-9. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Antiurolithiatic effect of the taraxasterol on ethylene glycol induced kidney calculi in male rats.

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Department of Biology, College of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Biology, College of Biological Sciences, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva, Iran.
School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Taraxasterol is one of the important constituents of Taraxacum officinale L. (Compositae) with antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the antiurolithiatic effects of taraxasterol and potassium citrate in the ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rat. Urolithiasis was induced by ammonium chloride and ethylene glycol in adult male rats. Taraxasterol (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) and potassium citrate (2.5 g/kg) were treated for 33 days by gavage. Then, the animals were anesthetized and weighted and blood, urine, liver and kidney sampling were done. The kidney sections were prepared by hematoxylin & eosin staining. The liver and kidney coefficients, urine pH, calcium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate levels, serum albumin, calcium and magnesium levels, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum, kidney and liver, number of calcium oxalate crystal deposits, score of crystal deposits, score of histopathological damages and score of inflammation in kidney sections were evaluated. The results showed that taraxasterol decreased liver and kidney coefficients (p < 0.001), serum calcium (p < 0.01) level, serum alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) activities, urine magnesium (p < 0.05) and oxalate (p < 0.001) levels, number of crystal deposits (p < 0.001), score of crystal deposits (p < 0.01), score of histopathological damages (p < 0.001) and score of inflammation (p < 0.01) in kidney sections, while increased urine pH (p < 0.01), calcium (p < 0.001) and citrate (p < 0.05), serum magnesium (p < 0.001) and albumin (p < 0.01) levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in serum (p < 0.01), kidney (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) and liver (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) tissue homogenates in treated urolithiatic rats in comparison to the control urolithiatic rats. The effect of potassium citrate is the same as taraxasterol in treated urolithiatic rats. In conclusion, the effect of taraxasterol could be by improving liver function, changing serum and urine parameters, maintaining the antioxidant environment, reducing crystal deposition, excretion of small deposits from kidney and reducing the chance of them being retained in the urinary tract.


Antioxidant; Calcium oxalate; Dandelion; Kidney stone; Potassium citrate; Rat

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