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Nature. 2017 Nov 29;551(7682):601-604. doi: 10.1038/nature24654.

Observation of a many-body dynamical phase transition with a 53-qubit quantum simulator.

Author information

1
Joint Quantum Institute and Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.
2
IonQ, Inc., College Park, Maryland 20740, USA.

Abstract

A quantum simulator is a type of quantum computer that controls the interactions between quantum bits (or qubits) in a way that can be mapped to certain quantum many-body problems. As it becomes possible to exert more control over larger numbers of qubits, such simulators will be able to tackle a wider range of problems, such as materials design and molecular modelling, with the ultimate limit being a universal quantum computer that can solve general classes of hard problems. Here we use a quantum simulator composed of up to 53 qubits to study non-equilibrium dynamics in the transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions. We observe a dynamical phase transition after a sudden change of the Hamiltonian, in a regime in which conventional statistical mechanics does not apply. The qubits are represented by the spins of trapped ions, which can be prepared in various initial pure states. We apply a global long-range Ising interaction with controllable strength and range, and measure each individual qubit with an efficiency of nearly 99 per cent. Such high efficiency means that arbitrary many-body correlations between qubits can be measured in a single shot, enabling the dynamical phase transition to be probed directly and revealing computationally intractable features that rely on the long-range interactions and high connectivity between qubits.

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