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Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017 Nov 28. doi: 10.2174/1389203719666171129094937. [Epub ahead of print]

Transforming growth factor beta type I role in neurodegeneration: Implications for Alzheimer´s disease.

Author information

1
Centro Integrativo de Biologia y Quimica Aplicada (CIBQA), Universidad Bernardo O Higgins, Santiago. Chile.
2
Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas y Biologicas, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Bernardo O Higgins, Santiago. Chile.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Alzheimer's symptoms include memory loss and cognitive decline. Pathologically, the hallmarks of Alzheimer´s are the presence of Amyloid beta-plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Unfortunately, no cure is presently available and current treatments are only symptomatic. Transforming growth factor beta type I (TGF-β1) is a trophic factor involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Impairment of TGF-β1 signaling is associated with exacerbated Aβ deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation, which increases neurodegeneration. Aging and chronic inflammation reduce the canonical TGF-β1/Smad signaling, facilitating cytotoxic activation of microglia and microglia-mediated neurodegeneration This review gathers together evidence for a neuroprotective role of TGF-β in Alzheimer's disease. Restoring TGF-β1 signaling impairment may be a new pharmacological strategy Alzheimer's treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer´s disease; Smad signaling; Transforming growth factor-β1; amyloid-beta; microglia. ; neuroinflammation; neuroprotection; oligomers

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