Send to

Choose Destination
Postgrad Med. 2018 Mar;130(2):251-257. doi: 10.1080/00325481.2018.1410054. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Increased prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with metabolic syndrome and known type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based study.

Author information

a Medical University of Sofia , Clinical Center of Endocrinology , Sofia , Bulgaria.



The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.


A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47.6 (13.7) and 956 male, age 45.2 (13.5). All participants filled questionnaires covering current and past disorders and medication, smoking and family history. Zung self-rating depression and anxiety scales were completed. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured, BMI was calculated, serum glucose and lipids were measured.


Depression (SDSi) and anxiety scores (SASi) were higher in the females and increased with age (p < 0.001). SDSi was higher in the females and males with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (50.9 ± 9.8 vs. 45.9 ± 8.9, p < 0.001 and 42.7 ± 9.2 vs. 40.5 ± 7.9 p < 0.001, respectively). SASi was higher in the MetS subjects (females 50.59 ± 11.35 vs. 45.97 ± 10.58, p < 0.001; males 40.48 ± 10.1 vs. 38.04 ± 8.42, p < 0.001). Both SDSi and SASi were higher in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance (Mann-Whitney both p < 0,001). Positive depressive scores were more prevalent in subjects with MetS than those without (females 54% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.001; males 22.7% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.001). Depression and anxiety were more prevalent in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance but not in the newly-diagnosed diabetes. The OR for depressiveness was 2.0 (1.3; 2.6) in subjects with MetS and 4.2 (2.3; 7.8) in those with known diabetes.


In conclusion, depressiveness and anxiety were associated positively with age and female gender and were more prevalent among subjects with MetS and known diabetes mellitus.


Diabetes mellitus; SASi; SDSi; Zung self-rating scale; anxiety; depression; metabolic syndrome

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center