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World J Clin Pediatr. 2017 Nov 8;6(4):161-168. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v6.i4.161. eCollection 2017 Nov 8.

Rhabdomyolysis with different etiologies in childhood.

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Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, 35340 İnciralti İzmir, Turkey.
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, 35340 İnciralti İzmir, Turkey.



To investigate different etiologies and management of the rhabdomyolysis in children.


Eight pediatric rhabdomyolysis cases who applied to the Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Nephrology with different etiologies between January 2004 and January 2012 were evaluated in terms of age, gender, admission symptoms, physical examination findings, factors provoking rhabdomyolysis, number of rhabdomyolysis attacks, laboratory results, family history and the final diagnosis received after the treatment.


Average diagnosis ages of eight cases were 129 (24-192) ± 75.5 mo and five of them were girls. All of them had applied with the complaint of muscle pain, calf pain, and dark color urination. Infection (pneumonia) and excessive physical activity were the most important provocative factors and excessive licorice consumption was observed in one case. In 5 cases, acute kidney injury was determined and two cases needed hemodialysis. As a result of the further examinations; the cases had received diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae, sepsis associated rhabdomyolysis, licorice-induced hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, congenital muscular dystrophy and idiopathic paroxysmal rhabdomyolysis (Meyer-Betz syndrome).


It is important to distinguish the sporadic and recurrent rhabdomyolysis cases from each other. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis cases should follow up more regardful and attentive.


Acute kidney injury; Children; Etiology; Hemodialysis; Rhabdomyolysis; Treatment

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict-of-interest statement: We have no financial relationships to disclose.

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