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J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Dec;54(13):4205-4212. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2889-9. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminum-induced anemia, elevation of inflammatory makers and hepato-renal toxicity.

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Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology and Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, BP 1796 Atlas, 30 000 Fez, Morocco.
New York Medical Care for Nephrology, 87-40 134 Street, Richmond Hill, NY 11418 USA.
Department of Food Engineering, Institute of Engineering, University of the Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.


Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (500 mg/kg b.wt), and group 4: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (750 mg/kg b.wt). Doses were given once daily via a gavage. C-reactive protein, transaminases, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium and urine sodium and potassium were determined on day 28 of the experiment. Bee bread contained protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, phenol and flavonoids and it exhibited antioxidant activity. Aluminum caused a significant elevation of blood urea, transaminase, C-reactive protein and monocyte count and significantly decreased hemoglobin. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the use of bee bread. Bee bread has an antioxidant property, and exhibited a protective effect on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity and elevation of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, leukocyte and monocyte counts.


Aluminum; Anemia; Antioxidant; Bee bread; C-reactive protein; Toxicity; Transaminase

[Available on 2018-12-01]

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